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Galantamine and Choline

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Skyflower
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Lori~ann


« on: March 12, 2013, 01:21:56 pm »

Galantamine and Choline


You can't talk about Lucid Dreaming supplements without talking about this killer combination. No 'lucid pill' comes without these two; for  they are one of the best combinations that will provide you with a better chance at having a lucid dream.

Galantamine is mainly used as a treatment for Alzheimer?s. A reduce in the production of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine is the reason for Alzheimer's, and Galantamine inhibits the breakdown of acetylcholine. This results in more acetylcholine. I'll skip the rest of the science stuff and just say this: Acetylcholine is present in REM sleep; i'?s important for the generation and maintenance of REM sleep. Galantamine also acts as an agent for acetylcholine, essentially doubling the amount you have and facilitating REM sleep even faster.   


So what does this mean? Galantamine will cause an increase in REM sleep, resulting in longer and more vivid dreams.


So then how do I use it?
All you need is around 4-8mg of Galantamine in combination with a Wake Back to Bed. You can take it before bed but it won't have as profound of an effect.

Are there any side effects? Yes, there are mild side effects of prolonged use. You shouldn't take it more than 3 times a week max. If you do, you'll find yourself dizzy, nauseous, and may even lose sleep.

Choline is an essential nutrient found within the Vitamin B complex. It?s found in?acetylcholine! You need choline to keep your brain strong. Basically, it maintains the structure of the signaling pathways between your cell membranes.


How do I use it? Not without Galantamine. Alone, Choline does nothing in terms of dream recall and vividness. All it does is the same thing it does everyday: help make acetylcholine. But when combined with Galantamine, it intensifies the actions of Galantamine, thus producing more REM juice (acetylcholine, in case you haven?t gotten it yet). If you are supplimenting Choline, 400-800mg will suffice for a lucid dream. More won?t help.

Choline has no known adverse side effects.  Actually soemthing your body needs!

What if I want to take it naturally? Choline is found in such sources as egg yolks, soy, cooked beef, chicken, veal, bananas and turkey liver. It's going to be pretty hard eating enough choline to supplement your galantamine, so I would suggest you go the vitamin route.




Combining the two

 Putting these two together will be like loading yourself into a cannon and launching into a wall?   If the cannon means sleeping and the wall means lucid dreaming. To help, take some B complex vitamins throughout the day (via a Multivitamin, you should be doing that anyway!)

 If you're not taking a multivitamin, eat a banana or two a couple hours before bed. Then wake up after a couple hours of sleep (WBTB) and take your Galantamine and Choline. Or if you've chosen the natural Choline route, just the Galantamine. Remember, take 4-8mg of Galantamine and 400-800mg of Choline. From there, you can choose to WILD or DILD. You're bound to have greatly increased dream recall and vividness. From there, its all about practicing your lucidity techniques!



Where do I find these?

 You can find these at many online pharmacies.   GNC -- local pharmacies but most major retail pharmacies don't carry these suppliments.
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« Reply #1 on: March 12, 2013, 01:22:23 pm »

Here is a great and indepth article about Galantamine and Choline for Lucid Dreaming, as written by Ryan Hurd.

Very well researched and presented information!



Galantamine: Reviewing The Lucid Dreaming Pill

Posted by Ryan Hurd on July 9, 2009

So you're considering the red pill...

Galantamine has emerged as THE lucid dreaming pill.


This natural supplement has been used for centuries in China as a memory enhancer, and was even noted by the ancient Greeks for its powerful mind-inducing effects.  Now we know that galantamine directly promotes dreaming sleep as well as lucid dreaming, which is the art of becoming self-aware in your dreams.

There?s a lot of hype about galantamine, so I want to cover the basics about how it works on the brain, the studies that have proven its effectiveness, and my personal recommendations for experimentation with this safe and natural supplement.

However, I also want to be brutally honest about some of the mild psychological and physical side effects of galantamine, as well as how to pair the supplement with mental and physical practices for best results.
Galantamine & Memory

red spider lily (Lycoris radiata)

Galantamine is found in the natural world in many plant sources, including the common daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus).

Today, it is used commercially as an extract derived from red spider lily (Lycoris radiata), a strikingly beautiful plant native to Asia, or from the Snowdrop plant (Galanthus nivalis).  The resulting compound is galanthamine hydrobromide.

Galantamine and its derivatives was approved by the FDA in 2001, and is largely used as a memory-improvement supplement for sufferers of Alzheimers disease and mild dementia.   Only recently has the substance been used as an oneirogen, or a dream enhancing supplement.

Historically, the first evidence for using the memory-increasing properties of galantamine come from Homer?s Iliad, where, some scholars argue, Odyessus uses the snowdrop flower (Galanthus nivalis) to combat the effects of memory loss (Duvoisin, 1983).
How Galantamine Works On your Brain

Galantamine keeps acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine, temporarily leading to increased memory function, dream recall and lucidity

Galantamine is known as an anticholinergic agent or a cholinesterase inhibitor.  In the brain, the compound blocks the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.  The drug is mostly metabolized in the liver.  The effects are not cumulative, and only temporarily increases acetylcholine levels in the brain.
Research into Galantamine?s Effect on Dreams

As early as 1975, dream researchers found out that acetylcholine and its inhibitors are somehow involved with dream sleep (Amatruda et al 1975).  In fact, noted dream scientist J. Allen Hobson stated rather boldly that ?Cholinergic brainstem mechanisms cause REM sleep and dreaming.? (1988, p. 202).  Around the same time, high acetylcholine levels in the brain was associated with the prevention of memory loss, which is why it appears to be effective in treating Alzheimers.

So, we know that the presence of galantamine has been shown to promote dreaming sleep.  Specifically, the compound acts immediately to increase the duration of REM sleep, and the dream state is made more structurally sound (Riemann et al, 1994).  Also, not only does galathamine increase the period of sleep that gives us dreams, but it also seems to help with recalling those dreams upon awakening.

In 2004, Stephen LaBerge applied for a patent for the use of cholinesterase inhibitors like galantamine to promote lucid dreaming.  While dream researchers had discussed the importance of the cholinergic systems with dream creation and dream recall, no one had yet mentioned that it may increase the likelihood of self-awareness in dreams as well.  His pilot studies show that galantamine treatments are more effective than placebos for lucid dreaming induction.

LaBerge (2004) also notes that there ?was also associated with a significantly elevated frequency of sleep paralysis and a 40% increase in estimated time awake during the night,? which is an important warning that I will come back to later.

In 2007, Thomas Yushak verified LaBerge?s results that galantamine increases lucid dreaming, in particular lucid dreams that emerge direct from awakening and going back to sleep without losing awareness (also know as Wake-back-to-bed dreams).
Physical Side Effects of Galantamine

Taking a supplement like galantamine directly affects your brain chemistry, and so it should not be taken lightly.  Some people will have adverse reactions.

The most frequent side effects are gastro-intestinal, including: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia (loss of appetite), and weight loss.  In tests with Alzheimer?s patients, these side effects are temporary and more common in the beginning of treatment.

Note that Alzheimer?s patients use galantamine during the day and in a recurring period over several months and even years; whereas for dream enhancement, it?s generally recommended to take only a few days in a row for a ?dream boost.?
Psychological Side Effects ? Sleep Paralysis!

As LaBerge (2004) has noted, galantamine has been shown to also increase micro-awakenings during the night.  For some light sleepers, it?s possible that galantamine can interfere with a restful night and you will wake up not feeling refreshed.

LaBerge also noted the increase in sleep paralysis with galantamine use.  This has been true for me personally, which I describe below in section titled ?my personal experiences.?

The Nightmare by Henry Fuseli, 1781

 

Sleep paralysis is a parasoma that can be very nightmarish if you have never experienced it before.  Essentially, you remain aware during the transition into sleep onset and/or REM sleep while the body undergoes muscle paralysis.

To be aware during this state means experiencing strange sensations that feel like being held down or being crushed by a weight on the chest.

Fear makes the sensations worse, and can spin into intensely real waking-dreams that may involve the presence of ?the Stranger? which is pretty much the scariest thing you can personally imagine.  So, playing with galantamine necessitates a working knowledge of how to stay calm during  sleep paralysis and transform the experience into an out-of-body experience (OBE) or a truly profound lucid dream.

Contraindications

Drugs with anticholinergic properties and which cross the blood/brain barrier, such as atropine, benztropine (Cogentin), and trihexyphenidyl (Artane), counteract the effects of galantamine.

Also, the following medical issues have been documented to be irritated or worsened by the use of galantamine: asthma, lung diseases, epilepsy or history of seizures, heart problems, including slow heartbeat or heart murmur, kidney and/or liver problems, stomach ulcer, and urinary tract problems.

Safe Dosage for Dream Enhancement

Taken orally, the galantamine supplement is active and at full strength within an hour of ingestion.  The half-life is about 7 hours.  Recommended dosage for dream enhancement is on the low side: 4 ? 8 mg. (Alzheimer?s patients, on the other hand, often take 12mg or more a day). Start low and if you do not notice any effects you can safely double the dosage after a couple days.

It?s best to take the supplement in the middle of the night to take advantage of the longer REM (dreaming sleep) cycles that occur in the second half of the night.  Taking the pill before you go to bed can be counter-productive, and may result in unpleasant experiences.
Recommendation: Combine with Mental Practices

I personally believe galantamine should be handled with care and with a healthy respect, just as for all oneirogens, and all mind-altering substances in general.

As they say, set and setting.

Know why you want to be more lucid, and mentally prepare yourself for the journey.  Don?t just pop the pill and flop down to bed after watching a horror movie or after a night of drinking.  Instead, prepare for sleep mindfully, perhaps by listening to relaxing music before bed, or by journaling about what you want to do when you realize you are dreaming.


The effects of galantamine can be doubled if you combine the supplement with some kind of regular meditation or mindfulness practice.

Because solidifying intent is really the hard part of learning how to lucid dream, taking a pill alone will not do the trick, although the actual behavior of swallowing a medicine is a strong ritual act that is in itself a behavioral artifact of intention.  Mindfulness during the day, and especially right before bed, is a great way to become more lucid during the night.

For example, because the best practice is to take galantamine in the middle of the night (in order to not effect early night deep sleep as well as be closer to the longer REM cycles of the morning), a simple exercise is to set the alarm after four and half hours (three sleep cycles of 90 minutes), wake up and take the pill with some water, and then do 10-15 minutes of concentrative meditation such as watching your breath while sitting upright.

Another effective variation for me has been to read for 10-15 minutes, especially to read about lucid dreaming.  These activities increase activity in the frontal lobe, and will result in more opportunities of staying lucid as you fall back asleep.
My Personal Experiences

I came across galantamine for the first time in 2005.  A lucid dreaming researcher and friend of mine had been conducting bioassays and reported a huge increase in his lucid dreams per week as well as higher lucidity levels across the board (more prelucid dreams as well as better concentration and focus in his waking life.)   I took him up on the offer to try it myself, but first he gave me stern warnings about following his instructions exactly.

Taking galantamine early in the night can result in some terrifying and highly uncomfortable experiences, like feeling drawn and quartered

The next night, I took a galantamine extract pill before bed.  This is exactly what I had been warned NOT to do, but I was too lazy to wake up in the middle of the night and take the pill as instructed.

What resulted was one of the weirdest and most uncomfortable sleep experiences in my life.  I woke up a couple hours after going to bed wrestling with titanic forces.  It felt like my brain was being drawn and quartered; I was disoriented, dizzy and felt a little drunk.  I kept falling back asleep into these bizarre dreams that I can only describe as my head being scraped against the bottom of a submerged iceberg.

When the night was over, I realized that I had probably been consciously awake during sleep onset, in which I experienced an unpleasant series of sleep paralysis.  Or it could have been deep sleep.  I told my friend what happened and he shook his head and said, ?I told you so?.?

A year later, I got up the nerve to try galantamine again and this time I took the dosage in the middle of the night.   Of those four nights I took the supplement, I had 3 lucid dreams, much more than my usual once every 10 days or so.  These dreams were filled with bizarre imagery, including some strange kinesthetics that felt like my body was being stretched, as well as some violent imagery.

Recently, I have been experimenting with galantamine, vitamin B5 and choline together, and have had several sleep paralysis-induced lucid dreams that have been pretty pleasant.  Choline is a common amino acid found in many foods (like bananas and potatoes) that is used as raw material in the brain to produce acetylcholine.

Now that I know what to expect, I have been able to transform these strange wake-to-lucid dream experiences and sleep paralysis into out-of-body experiences and some powerful lucid dreams that lasted over 15 minutes (in elapsed dream time).   I personally use the supplement as part of larger dream incubation sessions which last several days and include journaling, abstinence from alcohol and meat, as well as increased mediation and time spent in nature.
The First Taste of Lucidity

My recommended source of galantamine also contains choline and vitamin B5

I?m reminded of the Buddhist concept of ?the first taste,? which is described as the first fleeting ? and perhaps undeserved ? brush with an expanded awareness.  It can come upon us suddenly and spontaneously, and then be no where to be seen for many years afterwards.  However, this taste of the ?goal? is what gives practitioners the courage and perseverance needed to pursue a path towards greater lucidity and mindfulness.

Similarly, I believe galantamine can help those new to lucid dreaming a ?first taste? of self-awareness in dreams.  It truly is exhilarating and life altering to experience first hand the beauty and fragility of self-awareness in the dream world.

My recommended source of Galantamine is GalantaMind by Life Enhancement. This safe mix combines 4mg of galantamine with  1g of choline and 100 mg of vitamin b5 (Pantothenic acid).

Safe journeys!

This article is not intended as medical advice, but only for educational purposes. Sales of galantamine help support dreamstudies.org


References

Amatruda, TT, III, Black DA, McKenna TM, McCarley RW, Hobson JA (1975). Sleep cycle control and cholinergic mechanisms: differential effects of carbachol injections at pontine brain stem sites. Brain Research, 98, p. 501-515.

Duvoisin, RC., Plaitakis A. (1983). Homer?s moly identified as Galanthus nivalis L.: physiologic antidote to stramonium poisoning.  Clinical Neuropharmacology, March; 6(1), p. 1-5.

Hobson, J.A. (1988), The Dreaming Brain. New York: Basic Books.

LaBerge, S. (2003). Substances that enhance recall and lucidity during dreaming, United States Patent Application 604138.

Riemann, D., Gann, H. Dressing, H., Muller W., Aldenhoff, J. (1994). Influence of the cholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine hydrobromide on normal sleep.  Psychiatry Research, 51 (3), p. 253-267.

Toro, G. and Thomas, B. (2007). Drugs of the Dreaming.  Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

Yuschak, T. (2007) Pharmacological induction of lucid dreams. Published online 2007 but not currently available.

Yuschak, T. (2006) Advanced lucid dreaming: the power of supplements. Lulu Enterprises.
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« Reply #2 on: March 12, 2013, 01:22:53 pm »

One thing I neglected to mention here, that from my own experience, as well as enhancing lucidity and all things associated with that, I had several cool experiences and effects in dreaming and awake dreaming while under the influence of this supplement.  One of these was the ability to hear through walls.  Sounds crazy I know, but I was in the bathroom of my house and could clearly hear a conversation that was happening in my neighbour's home!
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« Reply #3 on: March 13, 2013, 05:44:48 am »

 Smiley

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« Reply #4 on: March 13, 2013, 08:47:08 pm »

Excellent source:
http://www.dreamamins.com/galantamine.html
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« Reply #5 on: March 26, 2013, 10:57:56 pm »


This site actually didn't work last time I tried to buy some of this supplement, but I was able to find a good supplier through e-bay.   Who would've guessed!?
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« Reply #6 on: March 30, 2013, 01:31:37 pm »

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« Reply #7 on: April 04, 2013, 10:42:54 am »



Take galantamine. Really - take it.

If you do, a remarkable molecular drama will unfold in your brain, enhancing the mechanism by which your thoughts travel through complex neural circuits to become deposited somewhere as memories. To see how this occurs, imagine that your eyes are incredibly powerful microscopes, able to peer into the heart of matter and observe individual molecules. If you used this awesome power to look inward at your own brain, what would you expect to see? Probably lots of icky stuff that you'd rather not think about (even though you think with it).

But wait: focus on a synapse - the tiny space between two adjacent neurons (nerve cells), where swarms of neurotransmitters zip across the gap from one neuron to the next, carrying a thought of yours on molecular wings. If you look closely at the cell wall of one of the nerve endings, you will see something startling and strangely pretty: countless tiny molecular rosettes, called receptors, dotting the surface. Each rosette has a dimpled center that can, when signaled, open up to create a narrow channel through the cell wall into the dark interior of the nerve.

OPENING THE CHANNEL

Each "petal" of the rosette - there are five petals - is a protein molecule. As molecules go, proteins are very large and complex, with many oddly shaped crevices into which much smaller molecules can fit, if they have exactly the right molecular structure for a particular crevice. Now imagine that you can see swarms of such smaller molecules zooming in on the protein petals, like hyperactive aphids on a flower. Some of them fit into specific crevices, called binding sites, on one petal or another for a split second; they then drift away, to be replaced quickly by another molecule of the same kind.

Ah, but during that split second, something very important happens: the rosette pulses, and the channel down the middle opens for an instant. During that instant, a few metal ions that were milling about in the fluid-filled synapse "shoot the chute" and vanish into the neuron's interior. All this happens thousands of times per second at each rosette, so your eyes better be quick as well as powerful.

MOLECULAR THOUGHTS

The metal ions, believe it or not, are carrying that thought of yours (a fragment of it, anyway), perhaps to be stored somewhere far down the line as a memory - the name of a new friend, perhaps, or the square root of eleven. The neurotransmitters handed the thought off to the ions, like runners in a relay race. To be more accurate, the neurotransmitters and the metal ions (as well as other molecules and ions inside the nerves themselves) don't carry your thought - they are your thought. Think about that.


Figure 1. Nicotinic receptors, showing the five subunits (each one a protein molecule with a very complex structure) in the "rosette" configuration. 1,200,000 times actual size.

In any case, what enables this "relay-race transfer" to take place is the receptor. In this case, we're talking about a certain kind called a nicotinic receptor, because it's so sensitive to nicotine. Yes, that nicotine, which in very low doses is a potent memory- and cognition-enhancing drug.1 There are many other kinds of receptors throughout the nervous system, but the nicotinic ones are the stars of this drama, along with the galantamine molecule.

GALANTAMINE MODULATES NICOTINIC RECEPTORS
Most of the "aphids" in our biochemical drama are molecules of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Others, however, are molecules of galantamine - assuming you're wise enough to have been taking this natural supplement for its extraordinary capacity to enhance memory and cognition.

What galantamine does - and here's the rub, #1 - is something very special: when it binds to the protein "petal" (called a subunit, actually) at its special binding site, it modulates the protein's structure through intermolecular forces, changing it subtly in such a way as to make the receptor as a whole more responsive than normal to the presence of the acetylcholine molecules that bind to the protein subunits at their sites. This causes the rosette to open more readily when triggered to do so by an acetylcholine "aphid" landing on it.

THE GALANTAMINE PAYOFF
Thus galantamine facilitates more efficient transmission of neural signals down the channels of your memory. Furthermore, galantamine exerts a protective effect on nicotinic receptors that tends to preserve their sensitivity to acetylcholine and to preserve the receptors themselves. This is important because both the sensitivity of the receptors and the receptors themselves tend to erode away as our brains age - especially if they fall victim to the ravages of Alzheimer's disease.

That protective action is the real payoff of galantamine, a remarkable plant-based alkaloid that has a history of use for thousands of years and that has now become known as the most effective anti-Alzheimer's agent there is. Neither of the two leading Alzheimer's drugs - donepezil and rivastigmine - fulfills this unique biochemical role as modulator of nicotinic receptors.* Instead, they act in a very different way, as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. That means that they inhibit the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which holds the levels of acetylcholine down - sometimes too far down, with negative effects on memory and cognition. So by inhibiting that enzyme, donepezil and rivastigmine free up more acetylcholine for use by your brain - and that's a good thing.

*You may have heard about yet another Alzheimer's drug called tacrine, but forget about it. Tacrine is history - it's rarely prescribed any more because of its dangerous side effects. Now being prescribed, in addition to donepezil and rivastigmine, is a new drug whose trade name is ReminylŪ. The active ingredient in Reminyl is . . . galantamine! The price for galantamine in that form is what one would expect for a prescription drug: steep.

GALANTAMINE - DOUBLE-DUTY AGENT
Let's summarize the situation: galantamine acts in one way (enhancing acetylcholine's effectiveness by modulating nicotinic receptors), whereas donepezil and rivastigmine act in another way (boosting acetylcholine levels by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase), right? Wrong, because - and here comes rub #2 - galantamine is also an excellent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, so it acts in both ways to boost your mental function. This makes galantamine a double-duty agent unrivalled by any other molecule. (That's it - no more rubs. It's all downhill from here.)

THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
Collectively, all the neurons in which these processes occur constitute the body's cholinergic nervous system. Cholinergic means "activated by or capable of liberating acetylcholine"; it also means "having physiological effects similar to those of acetylcholine." Because galantamine fills those bills, it is called, in the lingo of neurology, a cholinergic agonist - a spooky-sounding word that does not mean "causing agony." It means something that stimulates or enhances the activity of a natural agent, and its opposite is antagonist.

Disruption of the cholinergic system is believed to be largely responsible for the mental problems of old age, including Alzheimer's disease, which is primarily a condition of memory loss. A characteristic feature of this terrible disease is a complicated pattern of degenerative changes in the brain, including the atrophy or dysfunction of cholinergic cell groups that underlie the normal neural mechanisms associated with higher cognitive functions. There is also a progressive loss of nicotinic receptors in particular - a loss that is counteracted, as we already know, by the protective action of galantamine on these receptors.

Among the other forms of age-related cognitive impairment are confusion, delirium, hallucinations, and dementia. An important piece of evidence for the belief that cholinergic dysfunction is at the root of these disorders is the fact that they can be mimicked by taking various cholinergic antagonists, i.e., drugs that interfere with cholinergic activity.2 Throughout history, in fact, it has been a common practice in many cultures to take such drugs for ritualistic or sacred purposes, including initiation rites and religious ecstasies. (See the sidebar "Of Goddesses and Tomatoes.")

Of Goddesses and Tomatoes
The alkaloids atropine and scopolamine, which are cholinergic antagonists, are well-known examples of drugs that cloud the mind, inducing blissful forgetfulness. Some scholars believe that in the Greek epic the Odyssey, it was atropine - from jimsonweed, a plant native to the Mediterranean region - that the goddess Circe (who was quite a tomato) used to bewitch the crew of the hero Odysseus, inducing amnesia and a delusional state in which the men believed they had been turned into swine.

The antidote that Odysseus used when he went to rescue his men from Circe's seductive spell is believed to have been galantamine, which comes from the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), a flower also native to that region.* The snowdrops were given to Odysseus by Hermes, the messenger of the gods. This may be the oldest known account of the use of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for reversing the effects of an anticholinergic drug.

*Galantamine is also extracted from certain other flowers, such as the daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.), and the spider lily (Lycoris radiata). Most galantamine today comes from daffodils or is synthesized in the laboratory.

Among the favored sources of anticholinergic drugs, by the way, have been members of the botanical family called Solanacea, which is well known for its many poisonous plants (including jimsonweed). Oddly, the Solanacea family also includes our good friend the tomato (the kind you eat). When the Spanish conquistadors obtained tomatoes from the Aztecs and brought them back to Europe as a food, botanists there were horrified and declared that they must surely be poisonous.

It took a while for tomatoes to live down this bum rap and catch on, but it was worth the wait, because they eventually led to one of Western civilization's crown jewels: pizza. (For a surprising health benefit of pizza, see the article "Lycopene Helps Fight Prostate Cancer" in this issue.)

A META-ANALYSIS ON GALANTAMINE
In performing its dual roles, galantamine acts as a powerful cognitive enhancer, helping to prevent age-related memory loss. A meta-analysis - a thorough, critical review of the scientific literature - has recently been published, with results that confirm the role of galantamine as an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease.3

The authors combed medical journals and monographs, databases of clinical trials, and directories of Ph.D. theses for all available information on galantamine's role as a treatment for Alzheimer's. To ensure that only high-quality research was included in the meta-analysis, they screened the studies for the following factors: (1) they had to be randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and unconfounded (i.e., galantamine had to be tested alone, not in combination with any other agent); (2) they had to have covered a treatment period of more than 4 weeks for patients with Alzheimer's disease; and (3) they had to meet additional criteria regarding the study protocol and the reporting of data. Of the 33 studies examined, only seven made the grade.

GALANTAMINE WORKS AS WELL AS DRUGS
From the combined results of these seven studies - all of which involved patients with mildly to moderately severe Alzheimer's - the authors concluded: ". . . this review shows overall positive effects for galantamine for trials of 3 months, 5 months, and 6 months duration. . . . there is evidence demonstrating efficacy for galantamine on global ratings, cognitive tests, assessments of ADLs [activities of daily living], and behavior. This magnitude appears to be similar to other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil, rivastigmine, and tacrine."

In other words, in terms of cognitive function (memory and learning), galantamine works as well as the synthetic drugs. The dosages most commonly used in these studies were either 24 or 32 mg per day, but the authors concluded that 16 mg per day may be preferable, at least initially, because its efficacy is equal to that of the higher doses, and it is less likely to cause gastrointestinal upset.

GALANTAMINE HELPS MUSCLES TOO
Much of the evidence for the folkloric use of galantamine in Eastern Europe, where it is best known, pertains not to the improvement of cognitive function, but to the alleviation of neuromuscular ailments such as neuritis and neuralgia. Galantamine is also known to be a muscle stimulant (it counteracts the effects of the muscle relaxant curare, for example), and it is being recognized as beneficial for combating jet lag, fatigue syndromes, and even, perhaps, impotence.
In performing its dual roles,
galantamine acts as a powerful
cognitive enhancer, helping to
prevent age-related memory loss.

From the foregoing list of effects, one might conclude that the cholinergic nervous system is not confined to the brain or even the central nervous system as a whole - and that's true. Indeed, most cholinergic neurons are somatic - out in the body, where acetylcholine acts as the primary neurotransmitter of the peripheral nervous system, for both skeletal muscles and smooth muscles (which are found in the walls of most internal organs). Here the acetylcholine molecules provide direct stimulation of the muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction - the somatic equivalent of a neural synapse within the brain. They also serve our exocrine glands, such as salivary and sweat glands, which secrete directly to the outside via ducts.

GALANTAMINE IS SPECIFIC AND NONTOXIC
Wherever acetylcholine is - or ought to be in greater amounts than it actually is - galantamine can help increase its concentration and enhance its action. Galantamine's cholinergic activity throughout the body is also notable for its lack of toxicity and side effects. Part of its advantage over synthetic drugs in this regard may lie in the fact that it's about 50 times more effective in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase than in inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme that is apparently not involved in any cognitive function. By contrast, most other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are also effective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors, and it is believed that this may contribute to their peripheral toxicity.4

GALANTAMINE FOR BETTER MEMORY
The big idea is to increase your sources of acetylcholine in two ways: (1) through galantamine, a highly effective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and modulator of nicotinic receptors; and (2) through choline, the precursor molecule to acetylcholine, as well as pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), an important cofactor for choline. Combined, these nutrients boost the available amounts of acetylcholine both directly and indirectly, and it helps to preserve the function of the cholinergic system - all of which is beneficial for memory. Remember that.

References

    Levin ED. Nicotinic Receptors in the Nervous System. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2002.
    Perry EK. Cholinergic phytochemicals: from magic to medicine. Aging & Mental Health 1997;1(1):23-32.
    Olin J, Schneider L. Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease (Cochrane review). In The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2001. Oxford: Update Software.
    Barnes CA, Meltzer J, Houston F, Orr G, McGann K, Wenk GL. Chronic treatment of old rats with donepezil or galantamine: effects on memory, hippocampal plasticity, and nicotinic receptors. Neurosci 2000;99(1):17-23.






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« Reply #8 on: April 04, 2013, 01:12:33 pm »

galantamine is subject to prescription in some countries.

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« Reply #9 on: April 04, 2013, 01:36:04 pm »

galantamine is subject to prescription in some countries.

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Yes, easy to find online, though. 
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« Reply #10 on: April 04, 2013, 02:42:51 pm »

Did you know that by altering and enhancing our perceptions through herb or power plant has the potential to be integrated into the average position of awareness. If you experience a higher form of memory for example you can use that perception to make cohesion to your normal form. I remember seeing long ago that the positions of awareness attained are right there all the time, regardless of the use of a plant to get you there. Once a small amount of fluidity is realised you can walk your awareness to the effects.




Yeah, I was just saying this to someone the other day.  Once you reach that position, ie with the aid of a power plant or supplement, you always have access to that position, even without the supplement. 
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« Reply #11 on: June 27, 2018, 09:43:51 pm »

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